Wayback Wednesday: Treaty of Indian Springs 1825

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Creek Cessions Image One
Image Credit: wikipedia.org & wikimedia.org
Muscogee Cessions

Also known as the Second Treaty of Indian Springs or Treaty with the Creeks, one-hundred, ninety-five years ago, today, it was signed by the Muscogee and the U.S. government at the Indian Springs Hotel (now a museum).

The U.S. and the Muscogee had, previously, signed the Treaty of Indian Springs of 1821. On January 8, the Muscogee agreed to cede their land holdings east of the Flint River to the state of Georgia in exchange for $200,000, paid in installments.

Letter from December 14, 1824 (Digital Library of Georgia):

[…] Duncan Campbell and James Meriwether, U.S. Commissioners, [wrote] to Georgia Governor George M. Troup regarding obstacles the commissioners [faced] in treating with the Creeks. They [related] that proceedings [were] being conducted orally since the written method [had] failed. Also, the publication of negotiations held at Tucabatchee (Tuckabatchee or Tuckabatchie) and Pole Cat Springs [had] spread alarm throughout the nation as [had] the persistent “interference” of the Cherokees. Campbell and Meriwether negotiated the Treaty of Indian Springs [of] 1825 that was unauthorized by a majority of Creeks and, later, abrogated by the United States.

William McIntosh Georgia Encyclopedia Image Two
Image Credit: Georgia Encyclopedia
William McIntosh
Tustunnuggee Hutke (White Warrior)

The Treaty:

The treaty that was agreed [to] was negotiated with six chiefs of the Lower Creek, led by William McIntosh. McIntosh agreed to cede all Muscogee lands east of the Chattahoochee River, including the sacred Ocmulgee National Monument (Historic Park), to Georgia and Alabama and, accepted relocation west of the Mississippi River to an equivalent parcel of land along the Arkansas River. In compensation for the move to unimproved land, and to aid in obtaining supplies, the Muscogee nation would receive $200,000 (again), paid in decreasing installments over a period of years. An additional $200,000 was paid directly to McIntosh.


Governor Troup, and most Georgians, were in favor of the treaty and his inside man was his first cousin…William McIntosh. McIntosh paid the highest price. According to a Creek law, that McIntosh, himself, had supported, a sentence of execution awaited any Creek leader who ceded land to the United States without the full assent of the entire Creek Nation. Just before dawn on April 30, 1825, Upper Creek chief Menawa, accompanied by 200 Creek warriors (The Law Menders), attacked McIntosh at Lockchau Talofau (Acorn Bluff/McIntosh Reserve) to carry out the sentence. They set fire to his home, shot and stabbed him to death and, [killed] the elderly Coweta chief Etomme Tustunnuggee. Chillie McIntosh, the chief’s oldest son, had also been sentenced to die but, he escaped by diving through a window. Later that day, the Law Menders found [Samuel and Benjamin Hawkins, Jr.] (McIntosh’s sons-in-law), who were also signatories. They hanged Samuel and shot Benjamin but, he escaped.

John Quincy Adams Image Three
Image Credit: wikipedia.org & wikimedia.org
President Adams

A large majority of chiefs and warriors objected that McIntosh did not have sufficient authority to sign treaties or cede territory. [The] Creek Nation sent a delegation, led by Opothleyahola and [included] Menawa, to lodge an official complaint. Federal investigators (appointed by President John Quincy Adams) agreed and the U.S. government negotiated a new land cession in the 1826 Treaty of Washington. The Creeks did not, however, have their territory restored in the new treaty.

Though the Creek did retain a small tract of land on the Georgia-Alabama border and the Ocmulgee National Monument, Governor Troup refused to recognize the new treaty. [He] authorized all Georgian citizens to evict the Muscogee and ordered the land surveyed for a lottery, including the piece that was to remain in Creek hands. He threatened an attack on Federal troops if they interfered with the [previous] treaty and challenged [the President]. The president intervened with Federal troops but, Troup called out the state militia, and Adams, fearful of a civil war, conceded.

The government allowed Troup to quickly renegotiate the agreement and seize all remaining Creek lands in the state. By 1827, the Creeks were gone from Georgia. Within eight years, most of them would be relocated from Alabama to the designated Indian Territory (modern Oklahoma).

13 thoughts on “Wayback Wednesday: Treaty of Indian Springs 1825

    Dayphoto said:
    February 13, 2020 at 10:56 AM

    Very Interesting!! You do nice posts

      The Hinoeuma responded:
      February 13, 2020 at 3:13 PM

      THANK YOU! 💕💖 They can be time consuming and tedious, especially when data is strung out across several websites. It’s like putting together a puzzle. I have to make sure everything flows properly.

      You do nice posts, too. 🤗💕

        Dayphoto said:
        February 13, 2020 at 3:17 PM

        Well, you do a very nice job…it all flows and comes out perfectly!
        Thank you

          The Hinoeuma responded:
          February 13, 2020 at 3:34 PM

          BIG HUGS! 🤗🤗🤗❤❤❤

            Dayphoto said:
            February 13, 2020 at 4:53 PM

            Thank you

    JT Twissel said:
    February 13, 2020 at 2:01 PM

    Thanks for highlighting this shameful bit of US history. So sad.

      The Hinoeuma responded:
      February 13, 2020 at 3:26 PM

      I have NA ancestry. Born & raised in NC, my family(ies) go back to the 1600s. There was inter-marrying. I am painfully aware of what was done to the indigenous…that continues to this day.

    badfinger20 said:
    February 16, 2020 at 3:00 AM

    McIntosh came to an abrupt end. What a mess that was…Just a sad event all the way around.

      The Hinoeuma responded:
      February 16, 2020 at 2:25 PM

      McIntosh, being a half-blood, thought he had more power than he did. Creeks were matrilineal so, he got some power through his Creek mother. But, greed can get you killed. He showed that he didn’t care about his own people. And, that fucking Georgia Governor…he should have been shot. Creeks were peaceful types, in general. They weren’t bloodthirsty like Pawnees & Cheyenne could be.

        badfinger20 said:
        February 16, 2020 at 4:11 PM

        I didn’t know a half blood could be Chief. That surprises me that any tribe would allow that. Well now I know what matrilineal means.
        I agree about the Governor.

          The Hinoeuma responded:
          February 16, 2020 at 4:17 PM

          There were divisions in Creek society. He was a lower chief of Lower Creeks. He wasn’t the High Chief.

            badfinger20 said:
            February 16, 2020 at 9:27 PM

            So yea…he really shouldn’t have negotiated at all…not to mention take that money.

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