1998

Wayback Wednesday: Galileo Silenced 1616

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Galileo Before Holy Office Image One
Artist: Joseph-Nicolas Robert Fleury Original Image: library.thinkquest.org Image Credit: wikipedia.org & wikimedia.org

They really wanted Galileo to shut up. Four hundred, four years, today, the Catholic Church was nearly successful with an injunction. Referred to as the Galileo Affair, it started in 1610 and ended in 1633 with the Roman Inquistion.

Galileo got into trouble for supporting Copernican Heliocentrism, the mathematical model put forth by Nicolaus Copernicus (see Copernican Revolution), that suggested the Earth, and other planets, revolve around the sun at the center of the Solar System, opposing Geocentrism, backed by the Catholic Church.

Moons of Jupiter Image Two
Voyager 1 Montage October 30, 1998 Image Credit: wikipedia.org & wikimedia.org

Background:

In 1610, Galileo published his Sidereus Nuncius (Starry Messenger), describing the surprising observations that he had made with [a] new telescope, among them, the Galilean Moons of Jupiter. With these observations, and additional observations that followed, such as the phases of Venus, he promoted the heliocentric theory of Nicolaus Copernicus published in De revolutionibus orbium coelestium in 1543. Galileo’s discoveries were met with opposition within the Catholic Church and, in 1616, the Inquisition declared heliocentrism to be “formally heretical.” Heliocentric books were banned and Galileo was ordered to abstain from holding, teaching or defending heliocentric ideas.

Librorum Prohibitorum Image Three
List of Books Banned by the Catholic Church Image Credit: wikipedia.org & wikimedia.org

Deliberation

On February 19, 1616, the Inquisition asked a commission of theologians, known as qualifiers, about the propositions of the heliocentric view of the universe. [It was] confirmed that Galileo had advocated the Copernican doctrines of a stationary Sun, and a mobile Earth, and as a consequence, the Tribunal of the Inquisition would have eventually needed to determine the theological status of those doctrines.

Judgement:

On February 24, the Qualifiers delivered their unanimous report:

“[The] proposition that the Sun is stationary at the centre of the universe is foolish and absurd in philosophy and, formally, heretical since it explicitly contradicts, in many places, the sense of Holy Scripture. [The] proposition that the Earth moves and is not at the centre of the universe receives the same judgement in philosophy and … in regard to theological truth, it is at least erroneous in faith.”

At a meeting of the cardinals of the Inquisition on the following day, Pope Paul V instructed [Cardinal] Bellarmine to deliver this result to Galileo and to order him to abandon the Copernican opinions. [Should] Galileo resist the decree, stronger action would be taken. On February 26, Galileo was called to Bellarmine’s residence and ordered:

“[To] abstain completely from teaching or defending this doctrine and opinion or, from discussing it… to abandon completely… the opinion that the [Sun] stands still at the center of the world and the [Earth] moves and, henceforth, not to hold, teach or defend it in any way whatever, either orally or in writing.”

Galileo accepted the order. He didn’t have much choice as his reputation was at stake. Shortly afterwards, all books regarding the Copernican system were banned and Galileo’s works regarding Copernicanism were banned as well. His sentence prevented him from teaching or speaking of the matter further. He remained silent only for so long.

Additional Reading:
The Galileo Affair: A Documentary History (Wayback Machine)
The Trial of Galileo: Essential Documents (Google Books)
The 1616 Documents (Douglas Allchin’s Website)

Very interesting take on what actually happened…

Throwback Thursday: Losing King 1968

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MLK Image One
Image Credit: searchmap.eu

Fifty-one years ago, today, a powerful voice & soul was extinguished. I wasn’t even two years old when he was killed. He was only 39. He wasn’t a perfect person (who is?) but, his message was.

From The History Channel:

Just after 6:00p.m. on April 4, 1968, Martin Luther King, Jr. is fatally shot while standing on the balcony outside his second-story room at the Lorraine Motel in Memphis, Tennessee. The civil rights leader was in Memphis to support a sanitation workers’ strike and, was on his way to dinner when a bullet struck him in the jaw and severed his spinal cord. King was pronounced dead after his arrival at a Memphis hospital.

As word of the assassination spread, riots broke out in cities all across the United States and, National Guard troops were deployed in Memphis and Washington, D.C. On April 9, King was laid to rest in his hometown of Atlanta, Georgia. Tens of thousands of people lined the streets to pay tribute to King’s casket as it passed by in a wooden farm cart drawn by two mules.

MLK Image Two
Photo Credit: history.com

From Wikipedia:

The King family and others believe the assassination was the result of a conspiracy involving the U.S. government, Mafia and Memphis police, as alleged by Loyd Jowers in 1993. They believe that Ray was a scapegoat. In 1999, the family filed a wrongful death lawsuit against Jowers for the sum of $10 million. During closing arguments, their attorney asked the jury to award damages of $100, to make the point that “it was not about the money.” During the trial, both sides presented evidence alleging a government conspiracy. The government agencies accused could not defend themselves or respond because they were not named as defendants. Based on the evidence, the jury concluded Jowers, and others, were “part of a conspiracy to kill King” and awarded the family $100. The allegations and the finding of the Memphis jury were later rejected by the United States Department of Justice in 2000 due to lack of evidence.

MLK Image Three
Photo Credit: nytimes.com

After the assassination of President Kennedy in 1963, King told his wife, Coretta Scott King, “This is what is going to happen to me also. I keep telling you, this is a sick society.”

Senator Robert F. Kennedy was the first to tell his audience in Indianapolis that King had died. He stated:

“For those of you who are black, and are tempted to be filled with hatred and mistrust of the injustice of such an act, against all white people, I would only say that I can also feel in my own heart the same kind of feeling. I had a member of my family killed but, he was killed by a white man.

His speech has been credited as preventing riots in Indianapolis when the rest of the country was not so lucky.

On March 10, 1969, James Earl Ray pleaded guilty (on his birthday) and was sentenced to 99 years in the Tennessee State Penitentiary. He died in prison at the age of 70 on April 23, 1998, twenty-nine years and 19 days after King’s assassination.

Many documents regarding an FBI investigation remain classified and will stay secret until 2027.

I’ve seen the Promised Land.

30-Day Song Challenge: Day 24

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Music Challenge Image
Photo Credit: goodreads.com

A song by a band you still wish were together…

Oh, the music we have lost.

Lone Justice (1982-1986)
What a powerhouse voice this little thing had. I wore out the Shelter cassette.


 


 

Cry of Love (1989-1997)
A band out of Raleigh, they only made one studio album in 1993 with their original lead singer, Kelly Holland, who quit after one tour. He died young in 2014 at the age of 52. They got a lot of airplay, locally. The remaining members tried to continue with former Warrant lead singer, Robert Mason and made a second album that produced one single in 1997. Band members moved on/scattered to The Black Crowes, Lynyrd Skynyrd and Sheryl Crow‘s touring band. To me, once Kelly left, the magical sound was gone (no offense to Robert Mason).


 


 

Seven Mary Three (1992-2012)
A band out of Williamsburg, Virginia, they started when two Jasons met at William & Mary. The band name came from the TV Show CHiPs as 7 Mary 3 was Officer Jon Baker‘s call sign. Their best-selling album, American Standard, was produced in 1995 by the, now, defunct Mammoth Records out of Carrboro, NC, after their first attempt in 1994 failed to chart.


 


 

Far Too Jones (1995-2000)
This was another band out of Raleigh, nicknamed the Tobacco Road Quintet. They also had one album produced by Mammoth Records and got a lot of local airplay. The only reason this band broke up, as best as I can tell, is because they had no label support. They just couldn’t break out of the region, much like what happened to Echo 7 in Myrtle Beach (whom, I know, personally…I may have to put up some of their music one day).


 


 

And, just for Christmas Eve, this one. I remember this playing on G105 in the late 90s. This band was so loved here. Quote from them, regarding this song, posted on Facebook, yesterday:

“A little history on that one… we wrote it for the Acoustic Christmas Party we did for G105 many moons ago. We actually did not know we were going to write a song until one of the on-air personalities mentioned on the air that we were…LOL!”

Movie Monday: The Rugrats Movie 1998

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Rugrats Image
Photo Credit: gizmodo.com

Twenty years ago, today, the #1 movie at the box office was The Rugrats Movie.
Voice cast:
Elizabeth Daily (billed as E. G. Daily)…….Tommy Pickles
Jack Riley…….Stu Pickles
Melanie Chartoff (Principal Grace Musso from Parker Lewis Can’t Lose)…….Didi Pickles & Grandma Minka Kropotkin
Tara Strong…….Dil Pickles
Joe Alaskey…….Grandpa Lou Pickles
Michael Bell…….Drew Pickles, Chas Finster & Grandpa Boris Kropotkin
Tress MacNeille…….Charlotte Pickles
Cheryl Chase…….Angelica Pickles
Christine Cavanaugh (the original voice of Babe and Amanda Nelligan in The X-Files episode Small Potatoes)…….Chuckie Finster
Kath Soucie…….Phil, Lil & Betty DeVille
Phil Proctor…….Howard DeVille
Cree Summer…….Susie Carmichael

Notable Guest Stars:
Tim Curry…….Rex Pester
Whoopi Goldberg…….Ranger Margaret
David Spade…….Ranger Frank
Roger Clinton, Jr. (younger half-brother of President Bill Clinton)…….Air Crewman
Margaret Cho…….Lt. Klavin
Busta Rhymes…….Reptar Wagon

Notable Baby Singers:
Beck
Cindy Wilson (B-52s)
Dawn Robinson (En Vogue)
Fred Schneider (B-52s)
Gordon Gano (Violent Femmes)
Iggy Pop
Jakob Dylan
Kate Pierson (B-52s)
Lenny Kravitz
Lisa Loeb
Lou Rawls
Patti Smith

Awards:
BMI Film Music Award (1999/BMI Film & TV Awards)
Favorite Cartoon (1999/Kids’ Choice Awards, USA)

Six Nominations

Flick Friday: There’s Something About Mary 1998

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Cameron Diaz Image
Photo Credit: diffuser.fm

It’s Flick Friday! The #1 movie twenty years ago, today, was There’s Something About Mary.

Honestly, I’ve never seen this movie. ~Victoria